Punctuation, Grammar and Gauntama Buddha

This is a University exercise of writing…

Photo on 2012-03-26 at 19.12

Punctuation isn’t my strong point. This semester has taken a toll. Feeling inept and uneasy about my current grammar and punctuation abilities, I confessed my issues to a long term friend and confidant. I told him that I really struggle with grammar and punctuation and it is causing me some considerable amount of anxiety, lost marks and is generally bad for my Qi. The conversation went awkwardly and extremely quiet. My friend actively engaged, washing his dishes, screwed up his face, looked upwards, perhaps seeking inspiration from the Divine Potter? Or conversing mentally with Gautama Buddha on just what is the right thing to say in this circumstance? He finally apologized to me and said he was very sorry to hear this extremely saddening news and that this was affecting my world.

My good friend said he just couldn’t believe I could be having such problems given my ease with language generally. Great, I thought he was going to recommend seeing a doctor of some form. In fact, if he had recommended a friendly witch doctor I would have listened at this point. Sadly it is all true though, and upon receiving one of my latest assignments I can see a haze of red marker pen over my mistakes.

My first mistakes are use of correct capitals. his should have been His. Girls gone wild should have been Girls Gone Wild. My first incorrect use of an apostrophe. sexist ad’s. How incredibly embarrassing as I am an Advertising student and I’ve just used an apostrophe describing my subject incorrectly. It should have been sexist ads. Damn you punctuation! Damn you to hell!

Has my understanding improved?

Yes, I now know that I make many stupid, but easily correctable mistakes. If only my computer would recognize these? IMac A little help over here?

But wait, there’s more. Page two reveals I have no idea when to use a semicolon in constructing the sentences. For example. “Geoff is educated to a high school level, however.” No, not however, semi colon. Geoff is educated to a high school level; and works as a supervisor in a large security company.

Page three reveals I have no idea when to add a hyphen. The red pen in this example is where the hyphen is now between sports and like. For example, Steve loves almost all sports-like rugby, cricket, and Aussie rules.

Has my awareness changed? Yes it has, along with my blood pressure, anxiety levels, and self esteem.  I do have a problem with both grammar and punctuation and with an immense amount of work on this, one-day I might just be average.

In all seriousness though, I should pay much more attention to grammar. The last seven weeks, although mildly anxiety inducing, will undoubtedly have an impact on my future work.  I believe I am picking up on some of my more basic errors and have even been to the Ginger software site seeking their help. It’s brilliant. It has already rewarded me with many less errors for you to check within this assignment.



Social Media it’s mostly crap.

Photo on 2012-03-26 at 19.12

This week we are asked about the revolution in communication which is Social media. My outlook is that I believe it’s mostly crap. Revolution, no it’s more in a long evolution but I’ll come back to that.

Firstly, let’s make one thing clearly established here. I am not a hater, I love the internet. I grew it in my 8086 computer at home through my bulletin board while playing space invaders and drinking Jolt Cola. I am one of the people who made it into the joy we have today. I am the end user who bought every computer, I created the demand. I bought every gaming console plus all the software to support them. I nurtured them and grew these systems. One day in the 1990‘s I was in high school and I decided my computer should go out and play with the others. It was old enough and pretty aware so when the time was right, I connected it to the internet and set it free. Some time in the late 1997 it came back inside with viruses, it’s OS buggy dazed and confused, I changed it’s OS, gave it a condom, some more ram, a new screen and sent it back out to play. It’s been happy ever since.

Feeling attached to my internet and lengthy metaphors as I do, I dislike some of the things which have attached themselves to it. They are the weeds that have grown up with the electronic roses: Facebook, Twitter, Bebo, Wikipedia, these are just a few of the seemingly countless platforms which wrestle for domination of the electronic garden. Opinion will dictate whether some should get the weed sprayer and some rooted out. Other developments like Ginger and the Oculus Rift Project, which add in quality to what we do and where we may like to go in the future should get electronically fertilized.

Coming back to my original statement, I said evolution because I’ve watched it happen. It wasn’t amazing it just was the next idea on a very logical path of evolution to instant networking. Social media is just a more complicated version and interconnected version of instant messaging. Twitter is the least evolved current form of this, it’s barely more than basic instant messaging. Revolution would imply something was overthrown, a rebellion, a seizure of power or a change. Twaddle the Revolution hasn’t happened yet. Rest assured it will take place when we are sick of these platforms spamming us relentlessly.

Why do I see Social media as kind of problem?

Well, When everyone that has a voice is broadcast, who should we listen to?

First example, just look at what has happened to You Tube, we need TV shows run by Mr T, Shaquile O’Neal, or that guy from =3, to weed through the mountains of surplus media uploaded every second to find amusement and any real joy.

How many of these Social media systems should we trust? None.

Do they own the validity of whatever is on their platform, or do they even review or care when something does happen?  No they don’t and have been shown to be negligent in the way they run these systems. Some examples… Hate groups on Social Media go unchallenged due to the freedoms of speech. Owners of the sites taking little or no action, even when people have threatened violence or worse. Communist countries like China can control Social media therefore limiting it’s real reach.


Good examples: Interpol catches many pedophiles through organized online networks. Movement’s like Gay Marriage equality can gain world-wide strength and political pressure. Advertisers can drastically reduce their budgets and send you each messages individually. Pub’s can interlink and you can have a alco-pop at a video wall with someone else on the other side of the world you don’t know.

We really shouldn’t listen to people online. We live in a world where likes can be bought, popularity channeled, articles can be written and advertising micro targeted to push, promote and make the sale of crap happen instantly. Social Media it’s absolutely #Craptastic and that Crap can be auctioned, purchased now or plugged by a brand ambassador without you even knowing you’ve been advertised to. These are the real 1st world problems and this is why I dislike it, it’s just complete crap.


We will all soon be amoeba once more…

Photo on 2012-03-26 at 19.12

The truth is these days we are all the media and now the traditional media predate upon us like cloaked predators, using our own posted information like blood stains to hunt us down and ram their knife-like fists of public enquiry into us, hacking away our credibility in a search for the ultimate and grandest public exposure. How do we stop the bloodshed, tears, and horror of this mildly anxiety inducing metaphor?

We learn grammar. We learn it really well.


With the advent of Social media we all contribute to “media” so it’s timely that we look at how we write, what content we display and understand what people will think of us when we do so. Fortunately that means Grammar plays a large part in achieving the completed end product, the one which stands for eternity…that’s a really long time. Not only will it stand for all time, but if the grammar conveys the meaning correctly it cannot be misinterpreted.


Personally I believe that during my lifetime media coverage has devolved. I believe people used to trust that when they read the news, watched the TV they had a reasonable level of trust in the quality of information that they were receiving. I believe strongly that the current digital media technologies are dulling us and if left unchallenged, will leave us as intelligent as amoeba or perhaps even worse Americans.


Here is my case for the American / Amoeba crisis we face. We are at an all time low of intelligent, factual, researched media gathering and coverage.


Firstly we are saturated by 100 channels of media so any conflictual information is immediate, bewildering and leaves me questioning what I can actually believe? It gets worse if you look at global media rather than locally. Secondly anyone can contribute online, this is just dangerous to our intelligence as it lowers any standards the media once had. I submit the current MH370 news coverage in all forms as examples of how bad the media can be, how little intelligence is displayed and that it is only outdone by the lack of Public relations management by Malaysian Airlines. I digress as anymore about PR would become a rant.


Sure it’s great to have Journalists in every part of the world contributing articles every second of the day, but how many are just writing them for the purpose of getting something out there quickly? In that quick rush to get the article out how much focus is on research, fact checking and credibility. How many would stand the eternity test?


Looking back 3 weeks ago to now (and that’s a long way off eternity) the media didn’t have a clue. “If people in the media cannot decide whether they are in the business of reporting news or manufacturing propaganda, it is all the more important that the public understand that difference, and choose their news sources accordingly.” Thomas Sowell


Power Shorts!

Activity 7.1 

Attach and scan an advertisement that deliberately targets consumers by age or gender role. Discuss the effectiveness of the ad. 

There is no doubt in my mind that this advertisement is directed at younger men.  The imagery, the text and brand name are all directed towards men. Is it effective? Well in no way does this make me interested in buying shorts. Maybe I am missing something here but the advertisement just doesn’t speak to me nor does it convey a clear offer or sales message, the brand isn’t one I am aware of so I am lost!


I think the purpose of this advertisement is to build or hype the brand however I’m not really sure it’s memorable, clever, and certainly isn’t funny so by the time I flick this page over I’ll probably have forgotten it.

I’ve just re-read my scathing account of this ad, I am having real issues with why I dislike this advertisement so much. I have to know where this comes from?  A web search which reveals that this was created by M&C Saatchi Sport & Entertainment it’s artwork is by a Marvell comics artist. (I have always loved Marvel comics?) If I love Marvel why do I hate this advertisement, I should love it?

Supposedly this “draws parallels between comic book and superhero’s”.  Maybe this is part of the reason I find so much annoyance in this advertisement. The guys in the Ad aren’t superhero’s and in my mind are out of context so this sets up a series of conflicting processes for me.  And then it hits me…..I thought this looked extremely familiar.. Fantastic-Four-marvel-comics-3979715-1024-768The scene has been directed to look like any number of the many hundreds of front covers of  The Fantastic Four. It’s a complete ripoff!  Maybe this ad is effective for younger men who don’t have the comic book hangups or draw a positive association from it, but for me it hits all of my wrong buttons as for me it sits right in there with plagerism.

In summary effective for some maybe but not for me.

#yuck #wellthatsucks #M&CSaatchiscrewingwithmymind

International Brand Analysis

This assignment looks at brands and the way that they are presented on a global stage. The first part of this assignment is how is Australia presented internationally? ie Australia as a Brand. The answer to this question is not straight forward as it depends on which opinions you seek in consideration.

Tourism Australia is rather biased in its outlook, it says that The people of Australia are friendly and straight talking and open. Their sense of mateship and their no worries attitude make all visitors feel welcome. They make it easy to enjoy adventures beyond imagination. Whether it’s in Australia’s wide-open landscapes, pristine oceans or vibrant cities a holiday in Australia, is an opportunity to experience a vast yet accessible adventure playground. You don’t just visit Australia, you live it.”

Maybe more objective is an opinion piece by Greg Sheridan from The Australian, he wrote this article which identifies Australia’s two main brands a little differently. “Internationally, our brand is soldiers and sports. These are also our domestic obsessions. No institution is as revered as the Australian Army. Our founding myth is Gallipoli. Neither the first settlement, nor the Castle Hill or Eureka stockade rebellions, nor Federation, has anything like Anzac Day’s resonance. The sporting identity is intimately linked with our military tradition. The idea is that the sort of society we are – with its mateship and solidarity, its outdoor opportunities and its social egalitarianism, its have-a-go ethos – produces, naturally as it were, soldiers and sportsmen of the highest calibre. “

Taking another angle of consideration into account, that of an Advertising industry and brand management professional, Australia’s Brand isn’t apparently all good and only as recently as last month has been the subject of some negative attention. “Russel Howcroft, the national chief executive of a group of companies called Y&R Brands, told the National Tourism and Events Excellence Conference at the MCG in Melbourne the results of new global research on Brand Australia weren’t particularly encouraging. The world looked upon Australians as unhelpful, unreliable and untrustworthy and holidays here were considered poor quality and bad value for money, Howcroft said. The research indicated that, while Americans see Aussies as carefree and rugged, they don’t think Australians deliver quality or good value. Chinese think we’re “stylish and classy”, but not very helpful. Indians feel Aussies are daring but also arrogant. The Brits see us as “charming and independent”, but untrustworthy.”

The next question this assignment poses is what is the current Australian brand campaign? The Australian Tourism website says… The current Australian brand campaign is called “There’s nothing like Australia” The campaign “There’s nothing like Australia” was designed to be long-lasting and flexible, a campaign that could evolve to stay relevant for target consumers in a highly competitive and fast-changing global tourism environment. After two successful years in market the global campaign creative has been refreshed and updated to reflect current business conditions including the adoption of the Australian Government’s Tourism 2020 strategy.

The campaign is supposedly presenting Australia to the world in this respect “The new campaign creative will, target Australia’s key consumer audience by highlighting world’s best in Australia, including the accommodation options and facilities, the glamour and excitement of our contemporary cities, our globally renowned food and our wine, and our magnificent natural wonders. By focusing on examples of Australia’s best product, the next phase of the campaign aims to encourage these visitors to travel further and spend more on an Australian holiday. Tourism Australia believes the approach will resonate particularly well with Asia’s growing, affluent middle class, especially in key markets such as China, across South East Asia and the fast emerging markets of India and Indonesia.”

The second part of this assignment is to consider an Australian Brand and it’s background profile. The brand I have chosen is the Akubra Brand. Ok it’s not the biggest Australian international brand but I do believe it is an iconic piece of Australian culture and I was attracted to presenting it for this reason. Personally my experience started with this brand when my grandfather placed Akubra hat he wore during service in the military service on my head. I remember indelibly that is still had bullet holes through it, which I was able at the time to put my fingers through.

The Akubra brand has a long history in Australia. This company history information is taken from the Akubra website who seem very proud to display this history and some accompanying pictures of their company history.

“Akubra was established by in 1874 by Benjamin Dunkerley an English immigrant who first set up a hat factory in Glenorchy, Tasmania. Benjamin Dunkerley arrived in Tasmania from England and decided to start a hat making business in Hobart. His skills as a hatter were backed by his ability to invent machinery, and soon after his arrival he had developed a mechanical method of removing the hair tip from rabbit fur so the under-fur could be used in felt hat making. Previously this task had to be done by hand.  In the early 1900’s Dunkerley moved the business to Crown Street, Surry Hills, an inner suburb of Sydney, setting up a small hat making factory.

In 1904 Stephen Keir I, who had also migrated from England, joined Dunkerley. Keir had hat making experience from England, and was seen as a valuable acquisition for the business. In 1905 he married Ada Dunkerley, Benjamin’s daughter and soon after was made General Manager. Since that time the hat making firm has been in the hands of succeeding generations of the Keir family. In 1911, the business became Dunkerley Hat Mills Ltd, and had a mere nineteen employees. The trade name “Akubra” came into use in 1912. The increasing popularity resulted in the move to larger premises in Bourke Street, Waterloo and expanded production, especially of Slouch hats during World War I. Soon after all hats were branded Akubra. When Dunkerley died in 1925, ownership of the business transferred to Stephen Keir I.

The business continued to flourish and when Stephen Keir retired in 1952 he was succeeded as Managing Director by his eldest son, Herbert. His second son, Stephen Keir II, served as General Manager and became Managing Director in 1972. His son, Stephen Keir III, became Managing Director in 1980. Another son, Graham, joined the firm in 1972, first as sales representative for Northern NSW and later as National Sales Manager. Unfortunately, Graham died prematurely in 1987. Stephen Keir III retired as Managing Director on 31st December 2007, allowing his son and fourth generation of the Keir family, Stephen Keir IV, to assume the mantle of Managing Director. In 2010, after working with the company for more than 56 years, Stephen Keir III O.A.M stepped down as Chairman of the Board of Directors. Stephen Keir IV, who has worked with the Akubra company for more than 20 years, is appointed Chairman of the Board of Directors

On 25th May 2012 Stephen Dixon Keir III passed away peacefully. He leaves behind him his wife (and former Director) Wendy, Daughters Stacey and Nicola (who both currently serve as directors of Akubra Hats), Son and Chairman of the Board of Directors Stephen Maitland Keir IV as well as seven Grandchildren. So the family tradition continues.

The Akubra Hat Factory is now based on the mid north coast of New South Wales in the town of Kempsey, having relocated from Sydney in 1974.”

The third part of this assignment is finding out what the international perception of Akubra is using a swot analysis.

Akubra is seen as a Iconic brand, it’s positively supported and indelibly part of the Australian culture. In the movie Australia, the lead character Hugh Jackman played wears an Akubra hat which was specifically made for this movie. Akubra understands it can leverage it’s brand positively from the use in such high profile exposure, and has made regular practice of putting Akubra hats on big name celebrities. The Akubra product is made from local and imported products which supports local business. The product is suited to the environment that all Australians find themselves in. Akubra have found good markets overseas in other similar climate countries to Australia in places like South Africa and Zimbabwe and Tibet. Akubra have teamed with Corporate direct to offer corporate business clients the Akubra hat and appropriate additional corporate branding. Teaming with corporate direct was a clever move and would make large scale corporate orders quicker and easer.

Akubra has lots of competition Borsalino, Biltmore Hats, Christys, Hills, Mayer, Tilley, and Stetson to name a few. I believe it does not currently represent a growth industry and the cost to export Australian goods is high comparative to many other products. The biggest identifiable threat to Akubra is losing market share to big competitor businesses online such as Stetson.

The identification of new markets in similar climate countries has to be seen as the biggest opportunity for Akubra, combine this with small diversification and expanding their product range into belts or clothing. Akubra could develop an advantage over it’s competitors however it would probably be only able to do this by production outside of Australia.

Other companies do have a weakness in the Australian market as Akubra is iconic and seen as the “stockman’s hat”. It would be difficult to break this belief and would represent significant cost to any competitor who attempted to break Akubras market hold on Australia.

The Akubra brand does have competitors in fact they have lots, here’s an overview of the main competition, Stetson. This information was taken from the Stetson website history page.

“In 1865, with $100, John B. Stetson rented a small room, bought the tools he needed, bought $10 worth of fur and the John B. Stetson Hat Company was born. A year later the “Hat of the West” or the now famous “Boss of the Plains” hat was born and the name Stetson was on its way to becoming the mark of quality, durability, innovation and beauty….The longevity and history of the John B. Stetson Company is based on innovation and quality! John B. Stetson led the hat industry his entire career by designing new hat styles for fashion and function. When it came to quality it was his creed and for the past 130 years it has so stamped the product that the name and the word are synonymous.”

Stetsons belief is that “Stetson is the standard in hats, the essence of the spirit of the West and an icon of everyday American lifestyle. Because of its authentic American heritage, Stetson remains as a part of history and, for the same reason will continue into the future.”

Stetsons tagline is “Stetson, it’s not just a hat, it’s the hat.”

Other competitors include: Borsalino, Biltmore Hats, Christys, Hills, Mayer, Tilley, however the most serious competitor are Stetson due to the similar design styling, historic cowboy or stockman styling.

Are they the same? Well I believe that they are essentially the same product and were established within 10 years of each other, both having been around for more than 100 years I do not believe that quality has ever been of issue with either brand, both sit within their respective markets as iconic brand leaders and utilise patriotism to sell.

Brand edge for Akubra is probably only by location, if the Australian market were accessible by the US one hundred years ago I think we could have all been wearing Stetsons. The reputation of Akubra and Stetson brands are strong, reputable and iconic leaders in their respective markets.

Akubra uses a few different Advertising strategies, They use official sponsorship of Rotary Health, partnering with Mental Health awareness and building a positive social corporate image, as can be seen in this media release about their involvement with Rotary Health. “In an effort to bring the importance of mental health research to the fore, Australian Rotary Health will be holding a fundraising and awareness day on an annual basis. ‘Hat Day’ will be a day you and your family and friends can get behind as a way to promote the importance of mental health research.

Akubra is proud to be an official sponsor of Australian Rotary Health’s Hat Day. Akubra has made a three year commitment in suppport of this this annual event.

We hope you will join us in supporting Australian Rotary Health, to raise much needed funds for vital research that directly helps the mental health of Australians.”

Akubra also support the McGrath Foundation day in a similar positive social corporate responsibility with the bonus that they get high profile people and exposure. It’s hard to tell if their involvement is genuine since they seem to get the exact profile and exposure that a paying advertiser would seek. This is the media statement covering their involvement with the McGrath Foundation. “With Prime Minister Julia Gillard decked out in a pink Akubra, the channel Nine team sporting the bright Akubra’s and Glenn McGrath also in pink, no one left Sydney’s iconic sporting facility without a heightened awareness of the McGrath Foundation’s work.”

Akubra also use product placement on big name celebrities all over the world to push the brand and image. Some names of people they have used are: Julia Gillard, Ian Healy, Tony Greig, Michael Slater, Myffy Scadeen-McHugh, Hugh Jackman, Greg Norman,Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien, Ronald Regan, Prince Charles and Bill Clinton.

Akubra is highly identifiable as an Australian brand, however I believe it doesn’t suffer the questionable product or quality criteria as international perception seems to have about Australia. Akubra has history on it’s side, and has distribution channels all over the globe.

I believe it would be extremely safe to assume the brand perception would vary from country to country however Akubra have targeted celebrities in from many different countries so are positioning themselves in a way as a brand leader globally.

Australia is, and always will be, identified as a rough, tough and rugged country. The Akubra brand has thrived due to it’s robust almost indestructible quality. The Australian outback image and Akubra are indelibly and cleverly intertwined, having mass appeal with Australian farmers and being promoted as the Australian stockmans hat. The Akubra brand is a great one to be linked to Australia as it rides on the back of the tough nature of the country, is already iconic within it, and will probably always remain so.


Tourism Australia information. Retrieved 18.08.2012,  from http://www.tourism.australia.com/en-au/marketing/brand-australia.aspx

The Australian “Brand Australia defined by soldiers and sport” published August 18th 2012,  from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/arts/review/brand-australia-defined-by-soldiers-and-sport/story-fn9n8gph-1226451671042

The Sydney Morning Herald “Australians unhelpful unreliable and untrustworthy” published July 23rd 2012, from http://www.smh.com.au/travel/blogs/travellers-check/australians-unhelpful-unreliable-and-untrustworthy-20120723-22j6c.html

Stetson Hats History Retrieved 18.08.2012, from http://www.stetsonhat.com/history.php

Performance load, chunking and usability in design.

Performance load refers to psychological cognitive and physical demand or load. It defines two areas cognitive and kinematic load. Cognitive is the mental processes of perception, memory judgement and reasoning.  Kinematic refers to the physical, for example the amount of physical effort in the process required. Load is referring to the weight that this process makes upon each individual.

I’m writing this blog for a university report and found the in class examples used unhelpful. Here’s some more dynamic examples of cognitive and kinematic load situations.

For cognitive load, consider a pilot and co-pilot who are flying a plane. Normally the cognitive load for these two people would be low, however consider the times where pilots cognitive load increases when operating under stress. A low cognitive load maybe something like running through a preflight task list, checking and communicating the procedure between pilot and co-pilot.

A higher level of load maybe approaching a landing in rain, with limited visibility,  being  thrown around by turbulance,  reliant only on cockpit instrumentation, and then a malfunction occurs, all whilst trying to communicate procedures.  A good indication of levels of stress is the ability of the crew to communicate to each other.

“For example, a pilots’s erroneous anticipation of a takeoff clearance resultedin the 1977 runway collision at Tenerife, Spain, which remains humanity’s worst aircraft accident”. (Bragg, 2006)
The human brain is much like a computer and “Following the analogy of cache memory in a computer, comprehension in human readers proceeds rapidly and efficiently if all of the elements involved in encoding, storage and immediate memory access operate effectively in phase”.(O’Rielly 1992) This creates a chunk of memory in an overall larger map of memory.
Chunking of information is something we aren’t really very good at but increase our stress levels and we do very badly at the encoding part. We can at times only process a finite number of different things at a time.  This number is believed to be about seven give plus or minus 2 depending on the individual. With inflight information, keeping track of the amount of information on hand is quite a task, but the worse conditions become the higher the performace load becomes. The way airlines have dealt with this is by chunking information into checklists, so that nothing get’s missed in the process, and it simply becomes a checking situation between pilot and co-pilot.
If we  were not aware of performance load and it’s effects, things like this can occur. Consider this recent case where a bus driver was found to have texted 11 times before having a crash. ”The driver sent six texts and received five texts, with the last text just before his pickup crashed into the back of a tractor truck, beginning a chain collision. The pickup was rear-ended by a school bus, which in turn was rammed by a second school bus” (CBS news 2011)

Unfortunately the driver in this case, increased his cognitive load, diverting his attention from the task at hand with tragic consequences.

An example for Kinematic load, I like to think of is the difference between manual and automatic cars.

What I am saying here is that reducing the physical steps increases the simplicity and load experienced.

For example normally driving there maybe little if any percieved difference between driving a manual or automatic vehicle, however add in a few stress factors like bad weather, slippery roads, a child screaming and what cognitive load we aren’t using by coordinating the shifting and selecting of gears may be better used focusing on where and what the car is about to hit.

How does all this apply to design? Well simply the easier you can make obtaining your information, in a well presented, logical, simple, way the easier the system is to use.

In websites usability is vitally important  “Usability primarily involves the interface—what elements appear onscreen and how efficient, intelligible, and intuitive they are…Research on the way people interact with computers has provided insight into how to define, develop, and enhance usability, which is significantly associated with five basic design elements: navigation, response time, content, interactivity, and responsiveness.” (Palmer 2002)

If information is presented efficiently it can be targeted towards our behaviours.  “Most owners of websites have them for a reason. There are target behaviours that they want us to engage in – quite often, even several target behaviours. An e-commerce site wants us to choose products and buy them. A non profit site wants us to loan money to help small business owners in different parts of the world…..Most behaviour isn’t conscious.”(Weinschenk 2009)

People don’t read, they scan! “One of the very few well documented facts about web usage is that people tend to spend very little time reading most webpages. Instead we scan (or skim) them looking for words or phrases that catch our eye.” (Krugg 2000) pg 22

In summary less is definately more, so make your design logical, simple and easy to follow. Don’t make people overthink or they won’t get the information when they need it.



Krugg, S.(2000). Don’t make me think too much. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA: New Riders Publishing.

Weinschenk, S.(2009). Neuro Web Design what makes them click?. Berkley, CA: New Riders Publishing


O’rielly, R. (1992). Chunking capacity in good and poor readers. Texas womens University, 0227089

Palmer, J. (2002). Designing for Web usability. Computer, Volume 35, Issue 7 ,p102-103, (2002). ISSN 0018-9162

Cortes, A. (2011).  A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots.  Northcentral University,  349 2476

Bragg, R. (2006).  Runway Incursions. Bombardier Safety Standdown on Business Aviation Accident Prevention,Wichita, KS.


Bus crash information. (2012). Retreived May 10th, 2012, from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57342254/ntsb-driver-texted-11-times-before-deadly-crash/

Chunking information. (2012). Retreived May 10th, 2012, from http://www.reference.com/browse/Chunking_%28psychology%29


Cockpit view. (2012). Retreived May 10th, 2012, from http://www.flightglobal.com/airspace/media/galleries/images/92507/500×400/transavia-b737-view-from-cockpit-on-final-for.jpg

Pilot picture. (2012). Retreived May 10th, 2012, from http://media.salon.com/2011/06/ask_the_pilot-460×307.jpg

VW gearbox. (2012). Retreived May 10th, 2012, from http://www.arabamoto.com/var/albums/VOLKSWAGEN/vw-gti/2010_Volkswagen_GTI_manual_transmission_picture_wallpaperscar.jpg